Penn State Penn State: College of the Liberal Arts

Center forHuman Evolution and Diversity

One of the strongest evolutionary influences on humans has been largely invisible: microbes. Interdisciplinary approaches that incorporate evolution, microbiology, genetics, physiology, and more are necessary to reveal how we interact with microbes and how these trans-kingdom interactions affect both evolution and health.

Emily Davenport – Assistant Professor of Biology

Our history of conquest, colonization, and massive forced migration has created a profound and long-lasting social and cultural legacy, and these actions also left a genomic legacy. Transdisciplinary research is necessary to fully appreciate human diversity, to combat health inequity, and to advance wellbeing for everyone.

Zachary Szpiech – Assistant Professor of Biology

David Puts Headshot

"No factor is more fundamental to human variation than biological sex, and its importance to our health and well-being is becoming increasingly appreciated. A transdisciplinary approach rooted in evolutionary principles is the surest path to understanding the development of sex differences and how these processes contribute to human diversity and influence our lives."

David Puts – Associate Professor of Anthropology

Mark Shriver Headshot

"Our Center is important for two reasons: 1) There are many interesting questions yet to answer about human evolution and physical, behavioral, and genetic variation, and 2) There seems to be a continuing divide between what anthropologists know and how they think about human evolution and diversity and how the general public and academic colleagues in other fields think about these topics."

Mark Shriver – CHED Co-Director and Professor of Biological Anthropology

Nina Jablonski Headshot

"Human beings are products of rich and complex interactions between biology and culture that have developed over millions of years. Human evolutionary history informs our understanding of human behavior and culture, and vice versa. Examining only one side of this set of reciprocal interactions risks missing the plot entirely."

Nina Jablonski – CHED Co-Director and Evan Pugh University Professor of Anthropology

Heather Toomey Zimmerman Headshot

“Bringing together multiple disciplines to understand how people learn and reason about complex topics such as human evolution is important for today’s schools, museums, and other educational settings. The Center offers multiple perspectives of how research in this area is conducted, which will enhance young people’s views of how scientific knowledge is developed and of human diversity.”

Heather Toomey Zimmerman – Associate Professor of Education

Peter Hatemi Headshot

"If we are to make any headway in fighting diseases, reducing inequalities and the internecine fighting that appears to emerge so endemically when resources are scarce, values differ, and political approaches conflict, we must utilize multiple approaches, methods, be transdisciplinary and take into account the nature of human diversity, at every level, from our genes to our social identifications."

Peter Hatemi – Professor of Political Science

Eric Plutzer Headshot

"For problems ranging from infectious disease to racial tensions in American cities, understanding that evolution matters but that genes are not deterministic and differ in their effects depending on social behavior and environment is a powerful way to better understand and solve many human challenges. Interdisciplinary research holds great promise for using our knowledge of evolution effectively to improve the human condition."

Eric Plutzer – Professor of Political Science

David Almeida Headshot

"A transdisciplinary study of human evolution and diversity not only helps us understand how and why we became who we are, it is necessary for determining how we function day-to-day. My research examines the effects of biological and self-reported indicators of daily stress on health. How we experience and respond to daily life challenges is intricately tied to the evolution of human diversity."

David Almeida – Professor of Human Development and Family Studies



Bethancourt, H. J., Ulrich, M. A., Almeida, D. M., & Rosinger, A. Y. (2021). Household food insecurity, hair cortisol, and adiposity amoung Tsimane’ hunter-forager-horticulturalists in Bolivia. Obesity, 29(6), 1046-1057. doi:10.1002/oby.23137

Branch, G., Reid, A., & Plutzer, E. (2021). Teaching evolution in U.S. public middle schools: Results of the first national survey. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 14(1), 8. doi:10.1186/s12052-021-00145-z

Hong, J., Kapoor, A., DaWalt, L. S., Maltman, N., Kim, B., Berry-Kravis, E. M., Almeida, D. M., Coe, C., & Mailick, M. (2021). Stress and genetics influence hair cortisol in FMR 1 premutation carrier mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 129, 105266. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.105266

Cechova, M., Vegesna, R., Tomaszkiewicz, M., Harris, R. S., Chen, D., Rangavittal, S., Medvedev, P., & Makova, K. D. (2020). Dynamic evolution of great ape Y chromosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(42), 26273-26280. doi:10.1073/pnas.2001749117

Greaney, J. L., Surachman, A., Saunders, E. F., Alexander, L. M., & Almeida, D. M. (2020) Greater daily psychosocial stress exposure is associated with increased norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in young adults. Journal of the American Heart Association, 9(9), e015697. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.015697

Plutzer, E., Branch, G., & Reid, A. (2020). Teaching evolution in U.S. public schools: A continuing challenge. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 13(1), 14. doi:10.1186/s12052-020-00126-8

Zaidi, A. A., & Makova, K. D. (2019). Investigating mitonuclear interactions in human admixed populations. Nature Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0766-1

Zaidi, A. A., Ye, D., Anthony, K., Tomaszkiewicz, M., DeGiorgio, M., Makova, K. D., . . . Shriver, M. D. (2018). High levels of copy number variation of ampliconic genes across major human Y haplogroups. Genome Biology and Evolution, 10(5), 1333-1350. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy086